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Project Report Working Capital Management

This project report is on Working Capital Management and give all information about Working Capital Management Classification, Working Capital Management Theories, Importance, Advantages and Disadvantages of Working Capital Management.

Project Report on Working Capital Management :

Definitions of Working Capital :
According to P.V. Kulkarni “Working Capital is defined as the excess of current assets over current liabilities and provisions. It is not current assets or not working capital.”

According to Board of American Institute of Certified Accountants, “Working Capital some times called net working capital, is represented by the excess of current assets over current liabilities and identified as the relatively liquid position of the total enterprise capital which constitutes a margin or buffer for maturing obligations with in the ordinary operation cycle of the business."

According to Corine T. Morgand, “Working Capital is defined as the difference between company’s current assets and current liabilities the accounts, which belong to this group are usually the most active in the company. Unlik Project Report on Working Capital Management | Working Capital Management Research MBA/BBA | Working Capital Management Classification, Working Capital Management Project Theories, Importance, Advantages and Disadvantages of Working Capital Management
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Project Report Working Capital Management

This project report is on Working Capital Management and give all information about Working Capital Management Classification, Working Capital Management Theories, Importance, Advantages and Disadvantages of Working Capital Management.

Project Report on Working Capital Management :

Definitions of Working Capital :
According to P.V. Kulkarni “Working Capital is defined as the excess of current assets over current liabilities and provisions. It is not current assets or not working capital.”

According to Board of American Institute of Certified Accountants, “Working Capital some times called net working capital, is represented by the excess of current assets over current liabilities and identified as the relatively liquid position of the total enterprise capital which constitutes a margin or buffer for maturing obligations with in the ordinary operation cycle of the business."

According to Corine T. Morgand, “Working Capital is defined as the difference between company’s current assets and current liabilities the accounts, which belong to this group are usually the most active in the company. Unlike fixed assets they reflect the company’s daily activities."

According to Estern and Bringham, “Working capital refers to a firm’s investment in short term assets such as cash, short term securities accounts receivable and inventory. Working capital is defined as current assets minus current liabilities. If the term working capital is used without further qualification, it generally refers to gross working capital."

Working capital is essentially circulating working capital. Working capital moves from one process to another, from cash to inventories and back to cash. The term circulating working capital is used to designate those assets that are changed with relative rapidity from one from to another i.e. from cash to inventories to receivable to cash.

In the case of manufacturing concern, working capital is required to cater the following needs of business in order.
  • Raw material are to be purchased for cash.
  • Production process convert raw material into work in progress.
  • Work in progress convert into finished goods during course of time through production process.
  • Finished goods are converted into accounts receivable through sale.
  • Accounts receivable are realized in cash in due course of time.

  • The above operating cycles is repeated again and again over the period depending upon the nature of the business and type of product etc.

    The summarize it may be emphasized that gross and net concept of working capital are two important facts of the working capital management. There are no precise way to determine the exact amount of gross and net working capital for every firm. The data and problems of each company should be analyzed to determine the account of working capital. There is no specific way realizable in practice to finance current assets by short sources only.

    Keeping in view the constraints of individual company, a judicious mix of long term and short term finance should be invested in current assets.

    1. Gross Working Capital : This concepts refers to the total of current assets. Current assets are those assets which are convertible into cash with in the ordinary course of business. It is also known as Circulating capital and current capital. Current assets includes :
    • Cash in Hand.
    • Cash at Bank
    • Sundry Debtors
    • Short term loan and advances
    • Inventory of stock as : Raw material, work in progress, Finished goods.
    • Temporary investment of surplus funds.
    • Prepaid expenses.
    Net Working Capital : This concepts defined the most common definition of net working capital. In this concepts working capital is the difference between current assets and current liabilities, which are expected to be paid in the ordinary course of business with in a year.

    Current Liabilities includes :
    • Bills payable
    • Sundry creditors
    • Outstanding Expenses
    • Dividend Payable
    • Bank Overdraft
    • Provision for Taxation.
    Net Working Capital may be positive or negative. Net working capital will be positive when current assets are more than the current liabilities. If current liabilities are more than current assets then net working capital will be negative.

    Working Capital Management - Circulating system : The funds in the business are obtained from the issue of shares, issue of debentures. Other long term arrangement and from operations of business. A high part of generated funds is used to acquire fixed assets viz. plant and machinery, land and building and some other fixed assets, while the remaining part of the generate funds is used for day to day operations for the business i.e. to pay wages, creditors for raw material purchases and overhead expenses, for the raw material processed. This makes possible the stocking of finished goods by whose sales either account receivable are created or cash is received. In this process profit are generated. A part of profit is used to pay tax. Interest and dividends while the remaining part is ploughed back in the business. This cycle goes on constantly throughout the life of business.


    Classification of Working Capital

    The working capital can be classified as follows :

    1. Gross working capital : Gross working capital is the total amount of funds invested in the various components of current assets such as cash, inventory, marketable securities and account receivable.

    2. Net Working Capital : Net working capital is the difference between current assets and current liabilities. This type of working capital enables a firm to determine how much amount is left for operational requirement.

    3. Permanent Working Capital : Permanent or fixed working capital is the minimum amount which is required to ensure effective utilization of fixed facilities and for maintaining the circulation of current assets. There is always a minimum level of current assets which is continuously required by the enterprise to carry out its normal business operations. For example, every firm has to maintain a minimum level of current assets is called permanent or fixed working capital as this part of capital is permanently blocked in current assets. As the business grows the requirements of permanent working capital also increase due to the increase in current assets.

    4. Fluctuating or Variable Working Capital : TTemporary or variable working capital is the amount of working capital which is require to meet the seasonal demands and some special exigencies. Variable working capital can be further classified as seasonal working capital and special working capital. Most of the enterprises have to provide additional working capital to meet the seasonal and special needs. The capital required to meet the seasonal needs of the enterprise is called seasonal working capital. Special working is that part of working capital which is required to meet special exigencies such as launching of extensive marketing companies for conducting research etc.

    Temporary working capital differs from permanent working capital in the sense that it is required for short periods and cannot be permanently employed gainfully in the business. Figures given below illustrate the difference between permanent and temporary working capital. Permanent working capital is stable or fixed over time while the temporary or variable working capital fluctuates. Permanent working capital is also increasing with the passage of time due to expansion of business but even then it does not fluctuate as variable working capital which sometimes increases and sometime decreases.

    5. Cash working capital : Cash working capital is calculated from the items appearing in the profit and loss account of a business. It shows the real flow of money at a particular time. It is the basis of the operation cycle concepts which is assumed a great importance in financial management in recent years. The reason is that the cash working capital indicates the adequacy of working capital.

    6. Balance sheet working capital : TThe working capital, which is calculated from the balance sheet items is known as balance sheet working capital, gross working capital and net working capital are the example of the balance sheet working capital.

    7. Negative working capital : Negative working capital is the excess of current liabilities over current assets such a situation is called negative working capital when current liabilities are more then current assets.

    Project Description :
    Title : Project Report on Working Capital Management, A Finance Project Report, - 65 Pages
    Description : This project report is on "Working Capital Management" and give all information about Working Capital Management Classification, Working Capital Management Theories, Importance, Advantages and Disadvantages of Working Capital Management.
    This project cost is Rs. 2499/- only {without Synopsis} and Rs. 2999/- {with synopsis} only. If you need this project, send a mail at this id : info@projectreporton.net with your name, your email ID and contact nos. etc.
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